An American musician named
Hawkins was in England. His visa did not allow him to work in England.
He held a concert anyway.
At the concert was a guy named
Wilcox who published a jazz magazine. He paid for a ticket, applauded
Hawkins playing, and published a review.
Wilcox was arrested and
charged with aiding and abetting
Wilcox was not responsible
for bringing Hawkins to England, and didn't set up the concert.
The Trial Court convicted
Wilcox. He appealed.
The Appellate Court upheld the
The Appellate Court found
that Wilcox knew that the concert was illegal, and supported the concert
with his attendance. In addition, Wilcox materially benefited from the
concert because he used the review to sell magazines. Therefore he aided
and abetted Hawkins' crime.
The Court noted that if Wilcox
had attended the concert to boo and tell Hawkins to get off the stage,
then that would not be aiding and abetting.